Intellectuals and Fascism in Interwar Romania: The Criterion Association

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The girls were accompanied by seventy Legionaries, mostly shopkeepers, tradesmen, and office workers led by the tailor Dumitru Baiculescu.

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Girls like Maria joined the female wing of the youth section — Frăţia de Cruce the Blood Brotherhood. Cristescu was an important figure in the Legion, which explains in part why so many Legionaries attended her funeral.

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Four priests from different Craiovan churches presided over the funeral service. Maria was not a particularly important figure in the movement; nor did she die in politicized circumstances. She had only just joined the Legion in fact, and yet her political affiliation dominated and choreographed her funeral.

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Their salutes, marching, and office buildings paid tribute to her, and Legionary connections brought in local celebrities and extra priests who would otherwise would not have bothered with the funeral of a school girl. Legionary propaganda overwhelmed this private family celebration, showing how completely membership of the 4 Legionaries contested elections as Grupul Corneliu Zelea Codreanu the Corneliu Zelea Codreanu Group,Garda de Fier the Iron Guard,and Partidul Totul pentru Ţară the Everything for the Fatherland Party, Led by the charismatic Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, Legionaries combined political assassination, street violence, and anti-Semitic hate speech with romantic nationalism, religious symbolism, and charity projects.

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What does it mean to say that Maria Cristescu was a fascist? Press, I in no way wish to endorse these usages but know of no alternative that retains the embodying meaning that these f8 ultra fat burner recenzii had to contemporaries. Few historians consider anti-Communism to have been foundational to fascism, but most consider that it played an important role.

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Mosse ed. These were fluid terms in interwar period; contemporaries often used them interchangeably and certainly not as clearly defined political typologies.

More precisely, I examine how rank and file Legionaries experienced and articulated their political affiliations as members of the Legion of the Archangel Michael, and more broadly as part of a global fascist network.

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In doing so, I hope to recover fascism as a social category that had practical consequences for those who embraced it. Furthermore, official repression, uniforms, and the frequency of Legionary activities meant that becoming a Legionary meant far more than giving intellectual assent to a given ideology.

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He established the Iron Guard as a paramilitary subsidiary of the Legion in The Iron Guard was banned in and has not officially existed since, but it continues to be a popular way of referring to the Legion. According to the Anuarul Statistic al României, Bucharest: Institutul Central de Statistică,the population of Romania in was 19, people.

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Census data from estimated that 73 percent of the population was ethnically Romanian. Extrapolating the percentage intothis gives a total of 15, ethnic Romanians in Chronologically, the dissertation focuses on the period Ultra-nationalists shared the nationalism and anti-Semitism of Romanian society but they articulated these ideas in terms of an extremist ideology that most of their compatriots were not prepared to accept.

In former student activists and ultra-nationalists formed the Legion of the Archangel Michael under the leadership of Corneliu Zelea Codreanu. The Legion became an underground organization for the next two years, after which it suddenly took power in a coup 21 Alberto Melucci, Challenging Codes: Collective Action in the Information Age Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Changes in Romanian politics and the balance of power in Europe transformed the Legion first into an underground terrorist organization and then into a ruling party, radically altering what it meant to be a Legionary from this point on.

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They adapted the vocabulary, ideology, and organizational structure of the old movement to the conditions of anti-communist guerrilla warfare. Denying the anti-Semitism and hooliganism of the interwar period, they reframed the Legion as a spiritual movement aimed at fighting communism.

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For many of them, the first contact they had with veteran Legionaries was in communist prisons. Other former Legionaries entered the Romanian Orthodox Church as priests, monks, or nuns, using monasteries as a place where they could develop a post facto Legionary spirituality.

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Many had remarkable religious experiences behind bars, and their testimonies inspired a large body of hagiographical writings in 22 Lăcrămioara Stoenescu, De pe băncile şcolii în închisorile comuniste Bucharest: Curtea Veche, ; Mariana Conovici, Silvia Iliescu, and Octavian Silvestru eds.

Serious discussions of fascism became f8 ultra fat burner recenzii in Socialist Romania, and the relevant archives were closed to most researchers until the mids with the result that the ghosts of the.